Tag: Anti-Aging

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Defy Aging and Stay Healthy for 100 Years

Although stories revolving around long life and eternal youth have always been told throughout human history, most of us accept aging as a completely natural process. But if it is possible for some species, such as a certain type of jellyfish, to be biologically “immortal”, why not humans? As our understanding of biological processes improve, scientists have started to take on aging from a whole different viewpoint.

The Seven Revolutions in Healthcare That Will Impact Your Life – Part 5

Read Part 4 – mRNA Vaccines Mark a New Era in Medicine

How long can we live?

Only the gods can never age, the gods can never die. All else in the world almighty Time obliterates, crushes all to nothing.

– Oedipus at Colonus

Before we discuss potential lifespans of the future, let’s first take a look at what has happened in the past century. The 20th century saw an unprecedented acceleration and growth of life expectancy. The world average life expectancy rose from 45.6 years in 1900 to 77.8 years in 2000. This means that our average longevity increased by 3.22 years every decade during the past century.  But this trend is slowing down. In the UK, from 2009 to 2019, male life expectancy only rose by 1.5 years, and female by 1.1 years.1 In the US, life expectancy plateaued at 78.9 years in 2014, dropped slightly for three consecutive years, and remained at below 79 years until 2020. Ironically, this deceleration trend has been accompanied by record spending increases in the healthcare sector.2

Another trend in aging is the separation of lifespan and healthspan. Healthspan is the period of lifespan free from any chronic, age-related diseases. In 2019, noncommunicable, chronic diseases contributed to seven of the world’s top ten causes of death. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and type 2 diabetes, all age-related diseases, are leading causes of frailty and disability among the older population.3

There is no single answer yet to how long we can live.

Biomedical gerontologist Aubrey de Grey is well known for his rather radical theory of “longevity escape velocity”. He believes that at some point in the future, scientific progress will advance faster than the human body ages, potentially extending our life expectancy indefinitely.4

Other scientists have looked to statistic modeling to predict the trajectory of life expectancy. A recent study based on longitudinal monitoring and analysis of human blood markers concluded that the upper limit of the human lifespan is between 120 and 150 years.5

The question of lifespan and its potential limits is expected to be debated for a long time to come. However, despite different answers to this question, more and more scientists are coming to the understanding that aging is a fundamental biological process among the elderly. The key to all age-related diseases may lie in aging itself.

Why do we age?

One of the oldest theories about aging is the wear-and-tear theory. This theory argued that the human body will inevitably break down with use over the years, similar to a mechanical system.

Although the wear-and-tear theory fits with our observation, we know now that the human body is a biological system that is equipped with damage-repairing ability. In some studies, scientists have found that the aging process can be partially or completely reversed.

Scientists are only now beginning to understand the deeper underlying mechanisms at the cellular level. Anti-aging research now involves many very different ideas and approaches. The development of “The Nine Hallmarks of Aging” established a model that presents all the different factors that play a role in aging.6

In the 1970s, Elizabeth Blackburn discovered telomeres, the DNA sequences located at the end of all our chromosomes. During aging processes, the telomeres shorten, which also limits the number of times our cells can divide.7 Telomere attrition became one of the first hallmarks of aging to be identified. Other hallmarks are genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient-sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. If one of the hallmarks is aggravated, aging will accelerate; if it is ameliorated, aging will be prevented. The nine hallmarks of aging also showed us which areas anti-aging treatment should target.

What can we do about aging?

For many people, remaining healthy into older age is more important than having a longer life. Both for individuals and for society at large, the best outcome would be if the progressive disability of later life could be compressed into a shorter period. This goal, however, will be difficult to achieve if we treat age-related diseases separately. Aging not only affects nearly all our organs, but it is also the single most important risk factor for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. If we try to combat age-related diseases individually, we will only be replacing one problem with another one. The reasonable solution should be to prevent, delay, or reverse aging itself.

“If you live long enough, you will get cancer.” – Professor Robert Weinberg, a pioneer in cancer research8

Anti-aging medicine is still in its infancy. Many medical treatments targeting aging are still being tested on animals, which means we will likely not see any age-targeted treatment before the next decade. However, a few lifestyle-related approaches are already showing promising results in small-size human trials. Among these approaches are intermittent fasting and high-intensity interval training. Some supplements, such as NAD+ booster, resveratrol, and most recently spermidine, also are considered to be effective in preventing aging processes by bringing about rejuvenation on the cellular level. Last but not least, personal factors such as having a purpose in life, feeling healthy and satisfied, or becoming socially connected also play a role in healthy aging. The above actionable approaches are explained in detail in the Supertrends practical guide for longevity.

The future of healthy aging

Time waits for no one. For anti-aging interventions, sooner is better than later. The Supertrends in Anti-aging Report identified 150 companies that are working on anti-aging solutions. Most of the therapies are still in the pre-clinical stage. About 28 of them are currently being tested in human trials, including some of the existing drugs that were initially designed for other conditions, such as metformin and rapamycin. The re-purposed drugs could become some of the first available anti-aging treatments.

Anti-aging medicine is benefiting very much from the application of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, data analysis, and progress in genomic research. AI-assisted drug discovery has been implemented by a few start-ups. There are also some anti-aging start-ups that combine digital markers, biomarkers, and genetic markers to monitor the aging process and provide lifestyle recommendations.

Whether aging can be stopped or reversed is a question that will likely be debated for the foreseeable future. But there should be no doubt that even a few years’ delay in the aging process will have huge impacts on individuals and society.

The opinion on aging from some scientists is reflected in a tweet from the renowned biologist and professor of genetics, David Sinclair, “there is no biological law that says we must age.”

Share your thoughts on one of the most intriguing questions in human history – will we live longer and healthier?

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[1] Life expectancy (from birth) in the United Kingdom from 1765 to 2020*. Statista. June 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1040159/life-expectancy-united-kingdom-all-time/

[2] Christensen J., US life expectancy is still on the decline. Here’s why. CNN. November 26, 2019. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/11/26/health/us-life-expectancy-decline-study/index.html

[3] World Health Organization. The top 10 causes of death. 2020.  https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

[4] Findlay C., Extreme longevity: Why Aubrey de Grey believes we may live to age 1,000. Supertrends. September 16, 2020. https://supertrends.com/extreme-longevity-why-we-may-live-to-age-1000/

[5] Pyrkov, T.V., Avchaciov, K., Tarkhov, A.E. et al. Longitudinal analysis of blood markers reveals progressive loss of resilience and predicts human lifespan limit. Nat Commun 12, 2765 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23014-1

[6] López-Otín, C., Blasco, M.A., Partridge, L., et al. The Hallmarks of Aging, Cell, 2013, Volume 153, Issue 6, Pages 1194-1217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.039.

[7] Supertrends in Anti-Aging, Supertrends, last updated 22 June 2021, https://supertrends.com/solutions/dynamic-reports/supertrends-in-anti-aging/

[8] Lents N., Why Everyone Will Eventually Get Cancer. Psychology Today. May 22, 2018. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/beastly-behavior/201805/why-everyone-will-eventually-get-cancer

advances in anti-aging might slow down the biological clock advances in anti-aging might slow down the biological clock advances in anti-aging might slow down the biological clock advances in anti-aging might slow down the biological clock

Advances In Anti-Aging Research: Will 80 Soon Be the New 60?

Most people not only wish to extend their lifespan, but also their “healthspan”, which is the number of years where they feel great and healthy. Ideally, 60 should become the new 40, and 80 the new 60, if not better. Actually, 120 being the new 80 would be nice. And with advances in anti-aging research, this might be the case.

Of course, our average lifespans have already increased quite a lot. Two hundred years ago, it was between 30 and 40. Today it has roughly doubled due to a combination of medical progress, better lifestyles, safer environments, and so on. However, even as we now manage to dodge plaque, cholera, and hunger, etc., we still do age.

What drives aging?

Simply stated there are two elements of aging. The first is mechanical wear and tear, which we can increasingly fix with procedures such as hip replacements, dental processes, eye operations, etc. However, the far more complicated challenge – and the biggest contributor to the majority of mechanical breakdowns – is genetic breakdown.

For the foreseeable future, primary genetic decay seems unavoidable. The average adult human has more than 35 trillion cells, and through a human lifespan, there are 10 quadrillion cell divisions. Some of these create unfortunate mutations. Furthermore, our DNA is also exposed to radiation, harmful chemicals, virus infections, and more, which also contribute to genetic degradation. For instance, there are more than 10.000 cases of oxidative damage per cell per day. Most will be fixed through automatic error correction, but some damage remains unfixed, and over time, it accumulates. 

It is genetic breakdown that causes cancer, but even if we could cure all cancer, it would only extend the average human lifespan by approx. 3 years, because if aging doesn’t kill us through cancer, it can through something as simple as the flu.  However, there are now many R&D projects aiming to slow down the natural aging process, and this field is about to get rather interesting. 

Advances in anti-aging research could prevent natural genomic instability

Making cells immortal: telomeres versus the Hayflick Limit

In 1961, US anatomist Leonard Hayflick discovered that human cells in culture would only divide between 40 and 70 times and then stop. This phenomenon is now known as the Hayflick Limit. This happens because DNA contains so-called telomeres at the ends of all its chromosomes. These have no useful genetic code but are there to protect the rest of the DNA. 

Why? – because every time the cell divides, some of the edges break off. As long as these edges are telomeres, you are fine, but after enough divisions, you start to lose coding DNA, and then, the cell stops dividing and may enter a state of ‘senescence’. Meaning, it becomes a zombie.

Some cells avoid this with an enzyme called telomerase, which restores telomeres. This can make cells virtually immortal. Scientists have created mice with extended telomeres, and these had longer health- and lifespans. A related study of 65,000 people found that people who naturally had longer telomeres had longer and healthier lives. In other words, protecting or expanding telomeres might slow aging.

Removing zombie cells

Another approach is to kill off the zombie cells, as these produce highly inflammatory and disturbing proteins. Studies have shown that if young mice have zombie cells transplanted into them, they quickly become weak and frail, whereas removal of naturally occurring zombie cells in mice delays their aging. Such treatment in people – called senolytics and tackled by several companies – is currently held as one of the most promising ways to slow the aging process.

Resupplying the repairmen: stem cell therapy 

We all know that as we age, we lose muscle, and eventually, this alone can kill us. Furthermore, we also lose cells necessary for immunity defense, for processing sugar, and more. This is largely because of loss of stem cells. Stem cells are special cells that can self-renew indefinitely due to telomerase and that can later turn into anything that is needed in your body. As you age, you have less and less of them, and this means loss of ability to replace old or damaged cells. However, in 2012, researchers discovered that we can turn any cell into a stem cell by adding just four genes. Interestingly, scientists have treated mice with stem cell therapy, and they became healthier and lived longer. This anti-aging approach is also promising.

Revitalizing with rapamycin

The bacterium Streomyces hydroscopicus produces a compound to protect itself against fungi. This is called rapamycin, and it inhibits a special enzyme in humans (mammalian target of rapamycin). Administered correctly, it has a life-prolonging effect in yeast, flies, worms, and mice.

There have been small safety trials in healthy humans with positive results, but it is not yet known if rapamycin could have the same positive effects as in laboratory animals. However, it is widely considered one of the most promising anti-aging drug concepts right now.

When are we there?

I cannot predict if and when any of these as well as other medications in the works will reach the market, but many are in early or late-stage human trials, and it seems very likely that some of them will work within 5-10 years, if not earlier. Based on this, it seems that 80 can soon be the new 60, and that average lifespans of 120 (or more) are now getting within sight. Some scientists even think that we are approaching technologies that will enable humans to live “forever.”

Meanwhile, I will continue to exercise and eat my spinach. I might not live long enough to live forever, but if I can live long enough to experience the launch of effective anti-aging treatments, count me in. 


As you can see, there are various active research areas within anti-aging. For a more complete overview, you could take a look at our Supertrends in Anti-Aging dynamic report, in which we dive into the most promising research avenues and weigh their benefits, challenges, as well as list the companies working to make them happen. True to our future-as-a-service promise, this report will be periodically updated with the most promising advances in anti-aging research and additional deep-dives such as future market analyses and more.

Want to know how you can live a long and healthy life? Read our practical guide “How to live 100 years?” to learn what you can start doing today to live longer and healthier, according to science.

© 2021 Supertrends

Aging Aging Aging Aging

When Does Your Brain Start Aging?

Some people think the brain aging starts after 65. The onset of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of age-related dementia that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, usually occurs after age 65. However, decades of diligent work on this disorder have not resulted in any effective treatment. Could it be that we diagnose and treat brain aging too late? Do our brains begin to age long before any visible signs can be detected?

A recent study found that people in middle age, who have older biological age, can have signs of advanced brain aging, diminished sensory-motor functions, older appearances, and more pessimistic perceptions of aging. How should we use this new information in our battle with brain aging? Supertrends interviewed Maxwell Elliott, Ph. D., a clinical psychologist at Duke University and the first author of this research paper.

Aging faces
Image: Digitally averaged composite faces made up of the ten male and female participants with the youngest (left) and oldest (right) facial images rated by independent raters.

The importance of measuring brain aging

Elliott’s research interest is in neuroscience, especially using neuroimaging to understand brain function. He is very excited about new developments in using MRI to measure brain aging. In his view, if we can precisely measure the brain images by doing a series of MRIs, we will be able to tell whether the brain has aged and how quickly it aged. This can also serve as an indicator for whether a certain intervention (either treatments or lifestyle interventions) has worked for brain aging. According to Elliott, some researchers may be going about it the wrong way by rushing into treatment studies without setting up a reliable measuring method.

“We can’t only do studies where we just wait until someone gets dementia or dies. It takes too long, and it can only involve old people. This is not how we are going to figure out a way to really treat aging,” Elliott told Supertrends.

The pace of aging

Time is fair to everyone. This truism seems to apply to most people because we all age chronologically at the same pace. However, if we look at biological age, time does not affect everyone equally. Biological age determines the pace at which the functions of our organs deteriorate. Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can all have an impact on our biological age. It is common for people of the same chronological age to have different biological ages. 

Maxwell Elliott and his colleagues at Duke University put together data from a set of 19 biomarkers covering the functions of the cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, immune, dental, and pulmonary systems to produce an index termed the “Pace of Aging (PoA)”. The researchers followed more than 1,000 participants born between 1972 and 1973, collecting data at ages 26, 32, 38, and 45 to calculate each participant’s personal PoA. Unsurprisingly, the participants aged at different pace biologically, with the slowest PoA being 0.40 biological years per chronological year and the fastest PoA measured as 2.44 biological years per chronological year. 

Aging outcomes study

The most interesting finding is the associations between PoA and physical and psychological outcomes of aging. Researchers found that at age 45, participants with faster PoA had increased cognitive difficulties, signs of advanced brain aging, and reduced sensory-motor functions. Participants with older biological age also looked and felt older. This group of participants endorsed sentiments such as “things keep getting worse and I get older” and “I am not as happy now as I was when I was younger”. 

The findings of Elliott and his colleagues clearly showed that at the age of 45, people with more advanced biological ages were already displaying signs of brain aging and functional difficulties. 

PoA for everyone

It took two decades for researchers at Duke University to come up with the PoA results. “Nobody wants to wait for two decades to learn how fast they are aging and figure out what to do about it,” Elliott admitted.

“The next direction for this research is to use DNA methylation from one blood draw to predict your pace of aging. We are trying to turn it into a PCR test and hoping to get it to a price of US$100 or less.” 

“The main advantage of our research is that it is a longitudinal study over 20 years. Many other studies are not measuring people over a long period but measuring people of different ages. We will continue to do our 19 biomarker PoA measurements. Our goal is to continue to make this test more accurate and accessible.” Elliott feels that the PoA method is very promising. The Duke scientists are aiming to make the “US$100 PoA blood test” into a commercial product that will initially be available to researchers in their anti-aging intervention studies. After further validation, The PoA will hopefully be available more broadly. 

We got to go earlier in life

Returning to the question of the timing of brain aging, Elliott believes that studies on brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases should shift their focus to a much earlier stage of life. “A lot of our studies on brain aging focus on people who are already 75 years old, who already have accumulated massive age-related changes to their brain that put them at risk of developing Alzheimer’s and dementia. From a neuroscience and anti-aging perspective, we have to study people before these major changes happen. We have got to go back to earlier in life, before you’ve already accumulated age-related declines. That’s where my interest is, which is rolling back to younger people to find the earliest signs of accelerated brain aging.” 

Elliott and his colleagues concluded in their study that people in their midlife could already show signs of early brain aging, and that those people are also most likely to benefit from science-based interventions. 

Want to know what you can already do today to prevent aging? Click here to learn more about scientifically proven ways to ensure a longer and healthier life.

© 2021 Supertrends

Senolytics showcase link between life extension and therapeutics

A significant part of ongoing anti-aging research has conventional applications in the treatment of gerontological conditions while also opening up potential avenues for life extension. Two entrepreneurs – Lewis Gruber of Siwa Therapeutics and Marc Ramis Castelltort of Senolytic Therapeutics and Rejuversen AG – discuss how their cutting-edge research serves two purposes – to improve health at old age, and to move one step closer to the dream of vastly expanded human longevity.

Over the past three to four decades, scientists have refined their understanding of cellular aging processes and their effects, in terms both of specific pathologies and of the overall biological aging of the body. These insights have opened up ways to treatments that may one day help us achieve vastly extended health- and lifespans simultaneously. Indeed, among the potentially life-extending interventions that companies are actively researching today, there are many approaches that could not only help us live longer, but could also pave the way for new cures for specific illnesses and conditions that are currently untreatable. Given the close overlap between clinical therapeutics for diseases and life extension research, some even argue that “aging” should be considered a condition in its own right.

A glance at companies’ portfolios confirms this nexus between life extension and disease treatment. There is no firewall between longevity research and conventional medical R&D. A prime example is the field of cellular senescence, in which researchers use senolytic compounds to try and kill off “zombie” cells that have reached Hayflick’s Limit and stopped dividing due to shortening of telomeres. These senescent cells emit cytokines that cause inflammation and immune cell activation in the surrounding tissue and can even induce senescence in healthy cells. Cytokines are especially important in regulating the immune response, and research on immunosenescence ties in with more general efforts to understand the functioning and eventual dysfunction of the immune system, which have gained urgency in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 research: full speed ahead

“Although the pandemic has caused a slowdown in many areas, any solutions that are potentially effective in stopping the coronavirus will of course be fast-tracked,” said Lewis Gruber, CEO and co-founder of Siwa Therapeutics, in a recent interview with Supertrends. This biopharmaceutical company, based in Chicago, USA, has developed a humanized monoclonal antibody, SIWA 318H, which it hopes can directly target cells affected by viruses, including COVID-19. The antibody seeks out cells that have an abnormally high level of glycolysis and oxidative stress. Among these are cancerous, senescent, and virally infected cells.

“By removing those cells, we eliminate deleterious [damaging] secretions and stimulate regenerative processes,” Gruber explains. While the company remains focused on aggressive cancers, the devastation wreaked by COVID-19 has prompted Siwa Therapeutics to test its antibody as a potential treatment for infectious diseases and related cytokine storms and as a potential building block for a vaccine against the novel coronavirus.

Expanding lifespans – and health-spans

Another company that concentrates on the removal of senescent cells is Senolytic Therapeutics, a Barcelona-based biotech firm seeking to develop novel medicines and drugs for life extension and health improvement while also offering consulting services to other firms in the biotech sphere. The company’s co-founder, Marc Ramis Castelltort, noted in an interview with Supertrends that the main focus for now is on conventional life extension: “We are developing senolytic-based drugs that can treat diseases including fibrosis and certain forms of cancer. To the extent that such therapies can help people live longer, we are also expanding their lifespans, but our main goal for now is the treatment of pathologies that are associated with the biology of aging.” With support from the EU’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, the company hopes to come up with new medicines to combat fibrotic diseases and other age-related disorders.

Nevertheless, the insights that Castelltort and his team have gained into cellular aging and the role of senescent cells as a cause of frailty in old people have prompted him to found a second company, Rejuversen AG, which hopes to find cures for therapy-induced senescence in the field of oncology. “We aim to be able to present our first clinical trial by 2023,” he says.

“Although we are still at the discovery stage, we are confident that we will soon be able to treat aging-associated diseases and thus extend not only our lifespans, but also our ‘health-spans” (Marc Ramis Castelltort)

The best approach to do this, according to Castelltort, is to treat age-related diseases first and then life extension as two sides of the same coin.

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Extreme longevity: Why Aubrey de Grey believes we may live to age 1,000

British biogerontologist Aubrey de Grey is the unofficial doyen of the rejuvenation community, and one of the best-known advocates of the idea that vastly increased longevity could be attained in the near future. In an interview with Supertrends, he discussed the current state of the anti-aging industry.

At age 57, does Aubrey de Grey believe that he will live to see the fruits of the labors of anti-aging science? “That, of course, is the question I am always asked,” he responds. “The answer is that we don’t really know.” After many years of promoting gerontological research, he has become something of a celebrity, and with his long, flowing beard, he is the most recognizable face of the rejuvenation community.

While some researchers are careful to manage expectations regarding lifespan extension, and avoid predictions that might be seen as overoptimistic, de Grey promotes a vision of longevity that may sound like science fiction to some. Not only does he believe that we as humans can expand our lifespans far beyond current expectations, he is probably best known for his assertion that the first human to live to be 1,000 years old may already be alive.

Set course for Longevity Escape Velocity

As Chief Science Officer and co-founder of the SENS Research Foundation, de Grey promotes the development of “Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence” that can help delay or eliminate the onset of age-associated conditions in humans. This would allow them to expand their lifespan long enough by slowing down the aging process and continuously benefiting from advances in scientific research to the point where the human body can achieve what de Grey calls “longevity escape velocity” and live for hundreds of years or more.

Much as with vehicles or airplanes, he explains, this requires continuous preventive maintenance of the body to keep up with the ongoing damage that our organisms suffer at the molecular and cellular level over the course of a lifetime – and to prevent the damage from exceeding what the body can tolerate. De Grey believes that healthcare and regenerative medicine should therefore be based on a more rational approach that treats aging per se as a condition, rather than as a composite of diseases.

He is optimistic that regulatory approval could be secured quickly and that once this hurdle has been overcome, citizens will demand that their governments make life-extending medicines available. What about the costs? De Grey points out that healthcare is among the top drivers of government spending in many countries, and that anti-aging solutions could help bring down costs: “When therapies come along, they will pay for themselves very quickly. Just think of the productivity gains for a population that lives longer, healthier working lives.” Even a modest extension of longevity, he argues, could be hugely beneficial to national treasuries.

Immune rejuvenation

A few days after our interview, de Grey is delivering the keynote speech to the “Ending Age-Related Diseases” online conference, organized by the Life Extension Advocacy Foundation. Speaking in late August 2020, seven months into a global coronavirus pandemic, de Grey notes the global economic impact of COVID-19 – and points out that it is the elderly who are worst afflicted. Given that the aging of the immune system is linked to the aging of its constituent cells, he is convinced that the best defense against a repetition of the pandemic is a broad focus on aging: “Immune rejuvenation requires general rejuvenation.”

It is therefore fitting, he adds, that the XPRIZE Foundation is developing an Age Reversal Prize that is focused on rejuvenating the immune system. If the COVID-19 crisis has any positive effect at all, de Grey believes, it may be a renewed focus on aging per se. Given the burgeoning interest of the private sector in anti-aging treatments and interventions, he sounds cautiously optimistic about the future for life extension and rejuvenation. Assuming he is right, many of us may live to see much more of that future than we currently anticipate.

Supertrends is currently compiling a crowdsourced timeline on future technologies. As part of this effort, we are building a community of experts on anti-aging therapies and interventions. If you are interested in joining our community, please reach out to us to share your ideas, research, or inspirations at https://supertrends.com/call-for-experts/.
© 2020 Supertrends

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